Brave New World

The Truth About Our Society? Are We Corrupted?

In chapter 10-12 of the book, Brave New World, the characters undergo a sequence of changes in their behavior and attitude during their life in the civilized society. As the story progresses, the audience later on sees Bernard’s selfish ways to fit into society. As he brings back John and Linda into the World State, the Director enters in the room in a desperate state to have Bernard exiled from the “perfect” civilized society he wants to maintain. Bernard uses John and Linda for his own desires to embarrass the Director and bring a bad reputation on his title. The Director’s predicament in the chapter is an example of irony. The Director states that no one, including Bernard, can express individuality in any way as the factory will simply create a new individual to take a persons place for their misbehavior. However, the Director becomes the chief example of non-conformity when the others learn that he himself exhibited the most embarrassing behavior in society by fathering a child. The Director, who is normally responsible for the creation of life and ordering of class, is also responsible for a sexual act that goes against his own dystopian society. The Director resigns from his own job because of the embarrassment he faced and Bernard later on uses this chance to finally fit into society from his own selfishness from using John. Bernard later fits into the society by using John as the center of attention inside the World State, but from his own selfishness, Linda is mocked and seen as a disgusting, ragged human from other classes and this causes her to take a great amount of soma that puts her into a deep sleep state. John worries about her, but receives assurance that she feels happier with soma even though she will not live much longer if she keeps continually taking so much. For the first time in the story, John encounters the civilized society’s attitude towards death.

Bernard, who doesn’t care about John’s feelings, controls his daily schedule and uses his fame to get gain many women that he could not easily obtain before going to the Reservation. He later becomes cocky and overconfident as he foolishly criticizes society and even goes so far to lecture Mustapha Mond in a letter on ways that society could improve. The letter amuses and angers Mond, who nevertheless chooses not to punish Bernard for his cocky ways. Pride and arrogance are Bernard’s tragic flaw, the personality traits that causes his downfall. As long as Bernard felt inferior and out of place, he hated his society and explored the meaning of human emotion and individuality, but from using John he now sees what society has to offer him. However, John’s sense of displacement grows as he visits and is given a tour at an elementary school. At the school, John watches a video of Indian savages performing ritual worship while all the school children laugh at them. John asks why everyone laughed and learns that the children laughed because the scene is ridiculous and funny. In the Reservation the ritual was always seen important to John as he could never participate because of his differences. Instead of taking soma to get rid of sadness like everyone else, John reads Shakespeare whenever he feels upset or confused. Shakespeare’s literature and Linda’s previous life in civilized society have always been John’s only sources of information about the other world. Since Linda is permanently under the influence of soma, John can only turn to Shakespeare to explain his surroundings. Ironically, Shakespeare was a genius at invoking passion and emotion, where as society has virtually destroyed these feelings. This disconnection creates a series of serious misunderstandings between John and the rest of society as he struggles to develop his emotions while everyone else struggles to keep their feelings. Bernard’s character is an example of this from being a person that never used soma, to now using it when being depressed. His character may also be Huxley’s critique of the socialist governments. Bernard’s last name Marx alludes to Karl Marx, whose economic theories later contributed to the communist revolution and whose ideas underlie much socialist thought. Like socialist theory, Bernard longs for deeper meaning in human experience. However, Bernard’s taste of power corrupts him, much as power corrupted many socialist governments in the twentieth century.

In chapter 13-15, Huxley shows the audience the imperfection of society in the World State. Linda becomes an example of this as she goes to see John because of her experiencing the human emotion called love. Lenina’s crush on John becomes more uncontrollable as the story progresses. She discusses her sole desire for John and how no other man can replace him with Fanny. Fanny, ever practical, tells Lenina she must either forget about John and sleep with other men or take the initiative and go directly to John’s room. Lenina agrees with Fanny and takes soma to boost her courage to visit John. After she arrives, she tells him that she likes him and John, with images from Shakespeare in his head, tells her that he feels unworthy of her and begs her to make him worthy of her. John’s constant discussion of his feelings and quoting of Shakespeare confuses Lenina, and she only understands him after he tells her that he loves her.

Lenina responds by stripping off her clothes and trying to kiss him, a natural reaction given her cultural upbringing. John, however, reacts first with shock and then with rage thus screaming the word “whore” to her from her actions. Her new emotional monogamy goes against her conditioning. As she experiences these new emotions throughout this experience, it makes her actions and thoughts more like those of an individual, creating a sense of inner conflict. Thus, she constantly requires soma in order to interact with John, taking it during their first date and again before going to his house. Since Lenina has no conception of other cultures and traditions, let alone the Indian traditions, having sex is her conception of love. When John tells her he loves her, she logically assumes that he must want to have sex with her. The entire scene of Lenina going to John is an assertion of individuality, but after her stripping naked causes John to erupt in violence, she immediately reverts to the security of her sociological ideals. His reaction and their subsequent struggle destroy Lenina’s move towards individuality. John explained in the past chapters of how he used to be angered at his mother because of all the men she had sex with in the bed. Since he shares monogamous ideals with the Indian tribe, John has a great deal of suppressed anger towards his mother. Thus, when Lenina strips for him, she becomes everything he hates about Linda. At that moment, she loses the power of being desirable to him and becomes an object that embodies his mother’s base attributes. As a result, John takes all of his rage out on Lenina and drives her away from him. Huxley’s use of Lenina’s nakedness can also reflect the unveiling of her society’s true nature. Like Lenina, the society seemingly promotes beauty, happiness, and perfection. However, when stripped of its garments, the society appears just as base and human as the Indian society that John left. Lenina’s nakedness causes John to realize the gross imperfections of the dystopian society. He realizes that he cannot survive in this society any more than he could survive in the Indian village. Ironically, where John struggled to belong to the Indian social structure, he now struggles to avoid his new society.

After the terrible experience with Lenina, John receives a phone call about his dying mother and goes to the hospital. He encounters the head nurse, who seems astonished that anyone would want to see the dying or dead. Since society has abandoned individuality, they consider dying as beneficial to the population. As John visits Linda, the head nurse brings kids into the room for their death conditioning to get over the fear of dying. One of the kids makes fun of Linda and John becomes angered by tossing the child away. John tries to awaken Linda, but shakes her too hard that causes her to collapse and not breathe anymore. She dies in result from her condition and John is left alone in the World State. The two concepts of individual death presented in these chapters are highly different. In John’s idea of death, each individual represents importance and deserves to be mourned from death. On the other hand, the children learn to view death in a societal context, where the individual has no meaning. Because death does not harm society, the people do not need to fear it. With Linda’s death, John realizes that he is now alone. All of society’s supposed benefits have turned out to be things that morally repulse John. Because of his quest to maintain his individuality, John soon realizes that he cannot live as a sane member of this society. Society has compromised John’s struggle to maintain his individuality and destroy society’s “sameness.” For John, “sameness” becomes visually embodied in the twins of the World State. The physical appearance of multitudes of twins, all replicated and doing the same job, represents the total eradication of individual personality. John logically blames soma for this elimination of individuality. Soma suppresses emotions, which are the defining characteristics of individuals. By trying to force the Deltas to act as individuals, John attacks society’s roots. He sees the difference between the social order and individuality as one of freedom. Helmholtz realizes this and joins John in the process. John develops more and is seen clearly as a Christ figure. Like the character of Jesus Christ in the New Testament, Jesus came to teach great truth or revelation to ignorant or unenlightened people in his time. Jesus spoked truth from his words, but the people often did not hear the message. He thus later on becomes a sacrifice for his ideals during his life. Ironically, although John and Helmholtz seek to force the Deltas to act as individuals, they obtain the opposite result. The Deltas instead act as a unified mob, a classic example of people who have lost their ability to make personal choices. Huxley shows that not only does a mob rob its members of their individuality, but that the society in the story in reality is a carefully orchestrated mob.

In chapter 16-18, John is shown to fight for what is right for the society. After the mob, John is brought to meet Mustapha Mond. Mustapha asks John if he likes his society and he responds saying no as they both have a debate. Their debate are the ideals of individuality and those of the new social order, beginning with the concept of old versus new. Mustapha argues that the old is unnecessary because it contains destabilizing passion and emotions. Stability is the highest virtue because it leads to happiness, and old things like Shakespeare cannot exist since they do not lead to happiness. Mustapha explains this while telling John that he will send Bernard and Helmholtz to an island with society misfits so that his society will not be corrupted. Mustapha admits he himself would have gone to an island but received the choice of becoming the next Controller. He explains that his job is to promote the maximum happiness of society but not of his own. Ironically, he must act as an individual in order to decide what is best for the society. Mustapha then defines art and science as the two primary sacrifices of the old world in order to obtain the ultimate goal of maximum happiness. Art can only exist when it has no meaning, and where as science is praised for improving society, it is also restricted because it may destabilize society. Mustapha next considers that religion is the most destabilizing force in society. Mustapha does not deny the power that religion had in the past world and even claims that he believes in a god. However, he also claims that God has become irrelevant in modern society and now only manifests himself through absence. Huxley presents a strand of existential philosophy that maintains that God’s non-existence created a world in which humanity could only find meaning through its own existence. Mond’s society has strictly controlled the parameters of this existence, leaving no room for a god. John opposed this as he uses the Indian civilization from where he came from in the Reservation. The religion of the Indians inside the Reservation gives great meaning to their lives and provides the ability to endure turmoil and unhappiness. Mustapha explains that the the right to be unhappy no longer exists, but John wants to claim all the corruption of humanity and explain that unhappiness is a natural right every man should have in their life. Huxley names the banishment of art, science, and religion as the three major criteria that must occur to create stability. All of these lead to emotional, physical, or spiritual unrest and would thus threaten society. As a result, one must either eliminate them or use them only when they promote stability and consequently happiness, as in the case of science. Huxley also shows that John leaves to live in a lighthouse to recapture everything that civilization no longer has, including religion, love, remembrance, pain, and abstinence. The lighthouse can also be a reflection of the Garden of Eden, a utopian creation from which God had banished humanity for their sin. John hopes that this secluded space will provide a respite from the dystopia of the modern world. He attempts to repent for his own sins to reenter the Garden but soon finds that even this space is corrupt.

The people who come to watch John beat himself with the whip marks the last chance John has to rejoin society. Lenina’s arrival from out of all the people spurs him into a rage because inside his mind she epitomizes everything evil about her world. She is a sensual being who comes between John and his mother, defiles his abstinence, and makes him forget religion. In result when John sees Lenina, he attacks her in front of the crowd of people around the lighthouse. From this event, John becomes the main and central sacrifice as he went from a one man team against society to actually joining the society again. Joining the society again marked the sacrifice of his individualism and it was too much for him as in result, forced him to commit suicide by hanging himself. Huxley use of John’s suicide can show the death between him and Jesus Christ where as if John rejoined the society, he would give up his individualism and for Jesus if he would have not died on the cross, it would mark no saving for humanity as the world would go to Hell for sin. Huxley uses the ending of the story to show readers that humanity and goodness wither in face of mass depravity. The only solution that John could escape the cursed society was death. John killed himself because a good person cannot live surrounded by continuous sin. John couldn’t convince society into changing their ways so he died in order to be released from the controlling World State.

From the story, our today society can be shown as similar to the World State from Huxley’s works. The corruption of children, racism, and separation has shown that our society only wants to be perfect in its own way, but has ultimately led to our downfall as we have many problems in our countries that we are facing now and later in the future.


Brave New World

The challenged ways of our society.

In chapter 7-9 of the book, Brave New World, Bernard and Lenina are going into the Reservation that challenges their society’s civilized ways from the savages ways.

Bernard and Lenina are guided by an Indian inside the Reservation where they see disease, old age, and sacrifices. Both of them do not have any soma so they have to face the unusual and strange ways they do not see in their society. As they continue to watch the Indians’ terrifying life, Huxley use of religion is shown from the Indians’ rituals of them staring at Jesus and Pookong. Bernard and Lenina refer to their god as “Ford” or Henry Ford that created the assembly line back in our history that later inspired the Director in the book to use the methods made by Ford to help clone humans. This lets us know that the Director teaches the members of each class to have Henry Ford as their god since it was from his invention that mainly helped the Director to successfully clone humans. After the ritual, Bernard and Lenina later meets John, a savage who was born from a civilized woman. John explains to Lenina that her and his mother are the same as they are both from the World State. To make them not confused, he tells them that his mother, or Linda, was a visitor to the Reservation, but Indians found her with injuries and saved her life the next day. Bernard connects this story to the Director’s story of him taking a woman out to the Reservation, and it was actually Linda that he took out twenty-five years ago. They decided to meet Linda and are very surprised about her big differences from that of any civilized woman back in the World State. Linda barley had any teeth, was fat, and looked disgusting to Lenina that made her wanted to run away back home and go on her “soma paradise” to escape what she saw in reality. Linda also explains how she found herself pregnant with the Director even though she took precautions, but still followed her daily objectives that she did back in the World State. The Reservation’s society, however, was different from the World State that Linda could not realize as she slept with other men because of her conditioning and from this, she was beaten by other women and later rejected by the Indians. Huxley shows the audience that the Reservation and World State are different in many ways as she uses Linda to show how her civilized ways were challenged by the Reservation. The chapter also highlights the natural desire to isolate those who are different from human nature. Bernard’s society has outcast the Indians for their differences, but the Indians also make outcasts of others, for example, Linda and John. John is a hybrid, a man with conditioning and learning Indian ways, that does not belong to any society because of his differences in the inside and from the outside. John’s nature can also show that the Reservation is not just a symbol of human nature or of societal differences, but instead a representation of events that occurred in the past. Huxley uses her life to show the audience of how Native Americans and other indigenous populations were isolated from our society because of humanity’s desire to separate those that are different from others.

In chapter 8 of the story, John tells Bernard about his life living with the Indians in the Reservation. As a young boy, John was rejected from the Indians because of his differences that he had from the other Indian boys. Despite not being able to participate in any of the Indians’ ways, he absorbed the culture around him as he grew up. Later on in the story, Linda teaches John how to read by drawing on a wall and giving him a book. He learns about the World State from the book that he is reading, but he cannot depict what kind of world it actually is. A man called Pope, that Linda sleeps with in the bed, later brings John a book for his 12th birthday called The Complete Works of Shakespeare that he can read in the house and as John does, he uses Shakespeare as his guide in life while living with the Indians. The book is included in the story to be a representation of John’s subdued emotions in the Indian society. At the age of 15, John learns how to make clay pots from one of the older Indians. Later the same man taught him how to construct bows and arrows. However, John did not receive permission to enter the kiva, a ritual initiation to turn the young boys into men. Instead of entering the kiva, the other village boys drove him away into the desert with a barrage of stones. This incident can highlight John’s status as an outsider to the Indians and also causing him to feel lonely. As John continues on about his life, Bernard shares a sense of alienation from their respective cultures and that they are almost similar of trying to fit in with their society. After hearing John’s story, Bernard invites him and Linda to come back to the World State with them so he can blackmail the Director. Since the Indian world does not accept John, he agrees to leave hoping that the Other Place, or World State, can accept him. John represents the opposing values of native civilizations and civilized society in the story. Although Huxley uses the future dystopian society as a point of contrast, the book makes a larger point about the way all societies treat unfamiliar cultures. John symbolizes this difference, as he is too civilized and emotional for the savage lands but too savage for the civilized world. John also parallels Bernard in that he has struggled to join society but has received only rejection. This problem will remain a central conflict for John, who cannot fit into either society because of his hybrid nature. John’s history conveys further information about the life of the Indians and about his own isolation. He affirms his individuality through the retelling of his unique life story while also using Shakespeare as his emotional guide. However, John’s desire for Shakespeare suggests that John will not fit into normal society either because of his emotional nature that will forever alienate him from all existing cultures. Shakespeare’s works signify both the height of civilized culture and the vast array of human emotions. Huxley uses this to express how a civilized world has flaws and can potentially lead to a major downfall.

In chapter 9, the audience learns more about John’s personality as he displays his “love” for Lenina and how he is being used by Bernard for personal gains. Lenina is shocked from the experience of visiting the Reservation and decides to take a large amount of soma after the visit that puts her in a long sleeping state. Bernard, on the other hand, wants to use John to blackmail the Director so that he can fit into society instead of being isolated like John. As John enters Bernard and Lenina’s temporary household before leaving the Reservation, he convinced himself that he is in love with Lenina. Huxley uses this scene to show a similarity to Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet that relates to John’s emotions. John’s emotion towards Lenina represents a central conflict between the Indian society and the civilized world. This evidence is also similar to that of Romeo and Juliet’s families from the play. Lenina inhabits the civilized world, a world that looks down upon reservation people who live savage and incomprehensible lives. The Indians, however, cannot understand the scientific society that now lacks emotion, religion, and natural life. The emotion that John feels for Lenina mirrors the love that Romeo and Juliet, two lovers from feuding families, have for each other. This can support how John’s character will have confrontations with World State culture. His struggle to suppress his desire to touch Lenina demonstrates the teaching that he has learned from Shakespeare and from the “savages” on the Reservation. John is living in a desperate position of where he wants to live in the World State, but without the conditioning that Bernard and Lenina started off with. John’s intense desires and his equally intense self-control to think differently about sex, other than an average civilized citizen, is a major feature of his character. John’s habit of having Shakespeare as his guide not only demonstrates his distance from the World State society, but instead also serves as a reminder of the distance between our society as well. Huxley’s use of John’s character shows the audience of how our society is reflected back and similar to that of the World State’s society in the book.

Brave New World

Is a Trapped Society Really the Answer?

In the book, Brave New World, chapters 4, 5, and 6 shows how Bernard is shown as a rebel and a misfit from his defects in the society.

In chapter 4 of the story, Bernard is seen as an Alpha that has defects and differences from the normal Alphas in the World State. As Bernard orders a pair of Delta-Minus attendants to get his helicopter ready for flight, he betrays his insecurity because of his size. The lower class associates larger size with higher status, so he has trouble getting them to follow his orders because of his flaws. Bernard contemplates his feelings of alienation and becomes irritable because of the way he is made. This can be shown that many other individuals in certain classes may have defects as well in the World State such as Bernard’s friend, Helmholtz Watson. Helmholtz is an extremely intelligent, attractive, and properly sized Alpha Plus that works in propagandas. Some of Helmholtz’s superiors think he is a little too smart for his own good and the narrator also agrees with them, stating that “a mental excess had produced in Helmholtz Watson effects very similar to those which, in Bernard Marx, were the result of a physical defect.” Helmholtz defect is different from that of Bernard as instead of being a bad flaw, he is actually too perfect in his life. As Bernard visits his friend, they both share their dissatisfaction with the status of society and dislike of the system. Helmholtz feels that he can do much more with his life and asks Bernard the same question if there’s something so much more that he can do instead of doing a trapped role everyday of their lives. These characters both show that they are not just facing a rebellion against their created nature, but also against theirselves and society.

In chapter 5, Huxley introduces more details about the function of the dystopian world, combination of religion and sex, and also showing how Bernard is feeling more lonely and isolated than all of the other classes in the World State. As Lenina and Henry fly over the crematorium where adults are cremated and used for plant growth, Henry explains how everyone and dead people benefit the society in useful ways. He also tells Lenina that Epsilons are useful as well and this causes her to have a flashback about her repeated hypnopaedic lessons about the classes. Henry’s explanation can show that every individual and every class has a role and useful way to keep stability and balance in the society. Other than Lenina, that is enjoying life, Bernard goes to his weekly service to “become one” with a group of other individuals that performs sex, uses a drug called soma and chants spiritually throughout the service. Bernard takes the same amount of soma of the other individuals, but doesn’t feel the same emotions and feelings as everyone else. He fails every time to connect with the group and this causes him to feel more isolated and different from society. This increasing isolation on Bernard’s life will continuously take him down to a rebellious path that is against the Director’s plan and ideal world.

In chapter 6, Bernard is awakening in the inside to escape his trapped role in society and become a rebel against the Director’s ideal and strict world. As he is traveling with Lenina, he wants to share his individualism with her and wants to act like an adult that is forbidden from the Director to every citizen in the World State. Bernard goes to the Director to receive a permit to go to New Mexico, but the Director finds out about Bernard’s inappropriate behavior and forces him to put a stop to it or he will exile him to Iceland. Instead of being scared like a normal citizen would, Bernard takes the permit and walks out proudly that he is rebellious and following his own beliefs against the Director’s orders. Bernard’s character is shown to have change over the story as he accepts his own isolation and differences from the society as he wants to walk his own path in the World State. In the end, however, the outcome shocks Bernard as the Director plans to exile him to Iceland and this causes Bernard to not feel proud anymore about himself and his rebellion.

In conclusion, this can show that the World State will not tolerate irrational behavior and prohibit the freedom of the classes. Although the World State most obviously controls its members by conditioning them and gratifying their desires, there are hints that stability is maintained through methods that are still more evil and sinister. Having a trapped society is not the answer to creating a perfect and peaceful world that the Director thinks from his current plans and methods. Characters, like Bernard, in the story can show that there are other members of different classes in the World State that are being isolated away from society because of their defects that they shouldn’t have before their decanting. Huxley show this in the story to explain how stability comes at a bad price and it is shown through the dystopian society and characters’ trapped lives of following a dangerous world order. In order to create a meaningful peace for the society, their individual rights and most importantly, liberty, must be given to the characters.

Brave New World: Chapter 1-3, The Controlled Destiny

Brave New World

In the book, Brave New World, Aldous Huxley shows the audience a created, dystopia, society based on the problem of social stability and a controlled system.

In chapter one, an ideal called Bokanovsky Process is the major instrument in creating social stability for the society. This process involves cloning humans artificially that will have predestined roles inside of the society. These artificial humans all have different versions of them as they are undergoing the Bokanovsky Process inside the labs. The five versions are Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon as the Director explains this to the students during the tour of the facility. The Alpha and Beta, however, do not undergo the  Bokanovsky Process as it can weaken their embryos. The Director explains nexts to the students about another system they use to make over 1,000 of humans in a short time period that is called the Podsnap’s Technique. This process speeds up the ripening of the eggs within a single ovary thus creating hundreds of relative individuals in a short time span of two years inside the lab. After fertilization, the embryos travel on a conveyor belt in their bottles for 267 days which is also the gestation time period for a human fetus. On their last day, they are born and carried over to have different treatments based on their version. They are conditioned from their treatments and also immunized  to be destined for a certain place they will work in, love, and accept in their specific area as the Director also quotes, “their inescapable social destiny.” Moreover, conditioning makes them incapable of performing any other function than that to which they are assigned. The Alphas, for example, are leaders that will hold the most power to maintain and justify the unequal distribution of power and status in the World State because they were structured by specific tools to have them maintain that role from their genetics. This evidence can show that the genetically modified humans do not have free will or freedom, but are controlled by their creators and locked inside their own destiny. In this chapter, Aldous Huxley repeatedly emphasizes the similarity between the production of humans in the Hatchery and the production of consumer goods on an assembly line. The reproduction of humans are managed to maximize efficiency and profit. By following the rule of supply and demand, the scientists research how many members of each versions will be needed, and the Hatchery produces human beings according to those results or data. One key to mass production is that every part is identical and interchangeable and the Director uses this idea similarly by producing over thousands of brothers and sisters in multiple groups of identical twins. Although social stability may sound like an admirable goal, it can be used for the wrong reasons toward the wrong ends.

In chapter 2, the Director goes further into explaining how he keeps the humans under control from nature and ideals. The students observe a Bokanovsky group of eight-month-old babies wearing the Delta group’s khaki-colored clothes and watches the nurses as they give the babies books and flowers. As they are inspired by the books and flowers, an alarm will ring off loudly by their surprise and they will receive a mild electric shock, scaring them away from the flowers and books. The Director explains that this process will make the lower versions have an instinctive hatred for books and flowers so that they won’t waste the communities time by reading and probably “decondition” them. The Director explains that Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons were once conditioned to like flowers and nature in general. The idea was to compel them to visit the country often and “consume transport” in the process. But since nature is free, they consumed nothing other than transportation. The World State takes action to increase the consumption of goods by abolishing the love of nature from the created humans. After showing the students about the babies, the Director leads them to an area where kids have an elementary sex lesson. The Director also shows that sexual reproduction has changed in the world from the scientists’ process as the words mother and father, relate to pornographic now. After the Elementary Sex lesson is over, a nurse tells the Director that the Elementary Class Consciousness lesson is about to begin for the Betas. In this lesson, a technique called Hypnopaedia, or sleep teaching, is used to make the Betas repeat their lesson for one hundred and twenty times, three times a week, for thirty months. By using this method, the Director believes hypnopaedia instills the distinctions, prejudices and states that it is “the greatest moralizing and socializing force of all time.” In this entire chapter, this section focuses on the use of psychological technologies that are used to control the future behavior of World State citizens in an inhumane and terrible way. This system allows for social stability, economic productivity within narrow constraints, and a society dominated by unthinking obedience and infantile behavior.

In chapter 3 of the story, the Director leads the students next to a garden where naked children are playing. In reality, this would be considered and seen by parents as a bad thing for their children, but the Director astounds the students by explaining that sexual play during the created humans childhood and adolescence will weaken their sexual repression. As they continue their tour, the students surprisingly meets the Resident Controller for Western Europe, and one of only ten World Controllers, Mond. Mond quotes Ford, saying, “History is bunk” in order to explain why the students have not learned any of the history that the Director explains to them. The Director is unease by Mond because of rumors that he has forbidden books such as the Bible. The Director does not want the students to be corrupted and this can show how he wants to keep any ideals away from his “perfect” and controlled society. Mond then begins to describe life in the time before the World State began its policy of tight control over reproduction, child-rearing, and social relations. He also explains to the students of how strong emotion, inspired by family relationships, sexual repression, and delayed satisfaction of desire, goes directly against stability. Mond then blames the previously sacred institutions of family, love, motherhood, and marriage for causing social instability in the old society. These instabilities led to disease, war, and social unrest that resulted in millions of deaths and untold suffering and misery before the World State could be created. As the Director and Mond explain to the boys how the World State works in an abstract way, the scenes of Lenina and Bernard show the society in action. The sexual play of the children at recess, the boys’ discomfort at the word mother, Lenina’s relaxed nakedness, and the conversation between Henry and the Predestinator all serve to illustrate how the traditional taboos regarding sexuality have been discarded. In the Director’s point of view, these actions are seen normal to him, but in reality this would be seen as immoral and not normal to our point of view because of the inhumane ways created by the World State. The World State controls the behavior of its members through the forces of social conformity and social criticism as the adults also have no privacy in their lives. Even as an adult, a World State citizen must fear being seen doing something “shameful” or “abnormal.” They will always be under surveillance  by the Director or other superiors to ensure that his or her body and mind are following the World State’s moral value system. Mond also explains that old institutions shared the work of mediating the conflict between the individual’s interests and the interests of society with the State, but the personal institutions and State institutions were themselves out of alignment thus creating instability. He argues next that individuals cannot always be relied upon to choose the path of most stability since family, love, and marriage produce divided allegiances. He believes that divided allegiances of individuals produce social instability. The World State carries out this goal by controlling all of the citizens lives, not allowing them to have personal connections to anyone or anything, but only to the State. This shows how cruel a controlled life is for the created humans as they have no freedom and are conditioned to only follow one path and destiny in their life by the World State.